There are two kinds of excavators: internal combustion engine driven excavator and electric power driven excavator. Among them, electric excavators are mainly used in high altitude hypoxia, underground mines and other inflammable and explosive places.
According to the size of different excavators, excavators can be divided into large excavators, medium excavators and small excavators
According to different walking modes, excavators can be divided into crawler excavator and wheel excavator.
According to different driving modes, excavators can be divided into hydraulic excavators and mechanical excavators. Mechanical diggers are mainly used in large mines.
According to the purpose, excavators can be divided into general excavators, mining excavators, Marine excavators, special excavators and other categories
According to the bucket, excavators can be divided into shovel excavators, backhoe excavators, dragline excavators and grab excavators. Shovel excavators are mainly used to excavate materials above the surface, while backhoe excavators are mostly used to excavate materials below the surface.
1. Backhoe excavator backhoe is the most common type of backhoe excavator we have seen. Below can be used to stop the operation of mining, basic modes of operation are: gully end mining, mining, straight line, curve mining mining, maintain and super deep trench excavation and groove Angle mining slope mining, etc.
2. Shovel excavators
The action form of shovel excavator. Its characteristic is "advance upward, force cut earth". The excavating force of the positive shovel is large, and the soil above the stop face can be excavated. It is advisable to dig dry foundation pits with a height of more than 2m, but the up-down slope should be set. The shovel bucket is larger than that of an equivalent backhoe excavator, and can contain no more than 27 percent water
To the third class of soil, and with the dump vehicle complete the whole excavation transport operation, can also excavate large dry foundation pit and mounds. According to the different relative positions of excavating route and transportation vehicle, there are two ways of excavating and discharging: forward digging and side unloading. Dig forward and unload backward.
3. Dragline excavator
A dragline shovel is also called a dragline shovel. Its excavation features: "backward downward, gravity cut soil." Suitable for excavation, such as the following Ⅰ downtime, Ⅱ soils. When working, use the inertial force to throw the bucket out, dig far, dig the radius and depth of the earth is larger, but not as flexible and accurate as backhoe. Especially suitable for excavation of large and deep foundation pit or underwater excavation.
4. Grab and shovel excavator
Grab shovel excavator is also called grab bucket excavator. Its excavation features: "straight up and straight down, self-weight cut soil." Suitable for excavation, such as the following Ⅰ downtime, Ⅱ soils, in is often used in the excavation of foundation pit in soft soil area, open caisson, etc. Especially suitable for digging deep and narrow foundation pit, dredging old channel and dredging silt in water, or loading loose material such as gravel, slag, etc. There are two kinds of excavation methods: side excavation and location excavation. If the grab is made into a grid, it can also be used for loading ore blocks, wood chips, wood and so on in the storage yard.
Today's excavators account for the vast majority of total hydraulic rotary excavators. Hydraulic excavator mainly consists of engine, hydraulic system, working device, walking device and electric control. The hydraulic system consists of hydraulic pump, control valve, hydraulic cylinder, hydraulic motor, pipeline, fuel tank, etc. The electric control system includes monitoring disc, engine control system, pump control system, all kinds of sensors, electromagnetic valve and so on.
Hydraulic excavator generally consists of three parts: working device, upper body and lower body. According to its structure and USES can be divided into: caterpillar, tyred, walking, hydraulic, hydraulic, rotary, and the rotary, general, special, articulated, telescopic jib type and other types.
A working device is a device that completes a mining task directly. It is hinged by three parts, such as moving arm, bucket pole and bucket. In order to meet the needs of the various construction, hydraulic excavators can be equipped with a variety of work device, such as mining, lifting, loading, level off, clamp, bulldozing, impact hammer, screw drill and other operation equipments.
The rotary and walking device is the body of the hydraulic excavator. The engine is the power source of the hydraulic excavator, most of which use diesel oil in the convenient site, can also be used motor.
The hydraulic drive system transfers the power of the engine to the hydraulic motor, hydraulic cylinder and other executive components through the hydraulic pump, and drives the operation of the working device to complete various operations.