Plunger Pump - Principle
Plunger pumps have been around for decades and their popularity depends on two main reasons:
They don't need external energy -- the force of the water gives them the energy they need.
2. Their device is extremely simple, with only two moving parts.
The basic principle of plunger pump is very simple. The pump USES the momentum of relatively large moving bodies of water to pump relatively small volumes of water up.
To use plunger pumps, water must be located above the pump. For example, there should be a pond on the hillside so that pumps can be installed under the pond. Water is piped from the pond to the pump. The pump has a valve that allows water to pass through the pipe and accelerates the flow.
1. When the water reaches the maximum speed, the valve closes.
2. After the valve is closed, the flowing water generates great pressure in the pump due to inertia.
Pressure opens the second valve.
4. High pressure water flows through the second valve and flows to the water delivery pipe (this pipe usually has an air chamber to hold as much water as possible when water comes in).
5. The pressure in the pump decreases. The first valve opens again to allow water to flow and accumulate momentum again. The second valve closes.
6. The cycle repeats itself.
Water pipes lift water above pumps and water sources. For example, if the pump is 3 meters below the pond, the outlet of the water pipe can be 30 meters above the pump.
It can be seen that plunger pump has a big disadvantage, it wastes a lot of water. Normally, only about 10 percent of the water consumed by such pumps actually goes up the water pipes. The rest of the water flowed out of the pump as it accumulated momentum.